Crude oil is made from extracting resin from cannabis/hemp. It’s the cornerstone for edibles, concentrates, isolates, and topicals, but not all oil is the same. Learn about the differences between Full Spectrum Crude Oil and Distillates & where to purchase. Do you want to know more about the ever-expanding world of CBD? Read on ahead for our introduction of hemp crude oil and how you can use it.
Cannabis Crude Oil Explained
Cannabis crude oil is what many people typically call the oil that’s produced during extraction because of the additional steps needed to refine the product. However, some extraction methods, such as hydrocarbon extraction using butane or propane, have essentially rendered this terminology irrelevant due to the high levels of refinement that occur throughout the extraction process itself, thus producing a “crude” oil that’s actually ready-for-sale.
Hydrocarbon extraction (also referred to as BHO extraction) processes have the unique ability to extract the most sought after compounds and leave out the bad-tasting ones, resulting in highly-refined “crude oil” that can be made into artisan-crafted extracts such as shatter, wax, live resin, sauce, budder, crumble, isolates, and more. Unlike other extraction methods, the hydrocarbon extraction can bypass multiple refining processes to produce an elevated and more refined extract.
What Is Crude Oil?
The term crude is associated with a form in its natural or raw state without having undergone any additional processing or refinement. Crude product forms appear in various industries, but perhaps the best analogy is the petrochemical industry. Offshore oil rigs obtain the crude oil needed to be refined into usable products such as gasoline, petroleum jelly, and many forms of fuel.
Petroleum refineries are in charge of transforming the dark brown and generally useless crude oil obtained from pipelines into its more practical parts for consumer products. During the oil refining process, the underlying compound structures are separated and purified through various distillation methods. The resulting oil from the earth can then be sold without more refining or can be refined into smaller molecules to create an even greater variety of products.
Similarly, during a cannabis extraction process, rudimentary resin oil is removed from cannabis or hemp plant matter such as buds, leaves, stems, and seeds and refined into more usable forms.
Solvents Make the Difference
The most common solvents used during cannabis extraction include carbon dioxide (CO2), ethanol, and butane/propane. Traditional “crude” oil made using CO2 or ethanol extraction requires further post-processing to be infused into products or ingested, hence, the “crude” terminology.
Highly-refined “crude” oil made using light hydrocarbons such as butane or propane cuts down on the undesirables and contains a full-spectrum of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other essential compounds. This oil contains a higher amount of the plant’s aromatic terpenes and flavonoids, as well as other essential compounds, and requires no further refinement. It’s ready to be added onto whole-flower or joints, used for vape cartridges, and topicals for localized relief.
Keep in mind that cannabis resin, also known as trichomes, largely reside on whole-flower buds, but a small number of trichomes can also be found in stems and leaves. Seeds can also contain some essential oils but without any cannabinoids.
Crude oil is essentially the cannabis resin (with varying chemical compositions) separated from the plant. The amalgamation of trichomes can be acquired in a number of different ways. In the end, however, manufacturers want a potent and pure product while reducing the costs and improving the output of their production process. BHO extraction is the right solution for that.
How Is Crude Oil Made?
The differences in “crude” oil quality, color, and purity really come to light when we examine the different ways that cannabis resin can be extracted from the plant and the many ways it can be refined into a distillate, isolate, or full-spectrum product depending on the intended product.
Cannabis oil can be made using a variety of solvent-based or solventless extraction methods, each with its own pros and cons. Some of the most popular solvent-based methods occur with ethanol, carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrocarbons (propane and butane) as solvents, which strip the plant from its resinous oils.
Solvent-based methods utilize closed-loop equipment in lab-grade environments to recycle the solvent and also minimize the risk of leaks to avoid harm to the technician. Ventilation and gas detection systems ensure everyone stays safe and there are no hiccups in the process. Closed-loop equipment, however, ranges in speed and quality.
Solventless methods like dry sifting or pressing raw or frozen cannabis or hemp are used to avoid introducing solvents into cannabis. Solventless methods break off the trichome bulbs from the plant’s surface using agitation, heat, and pressure.
Various sizes of mesh screens are used to separate trichomes and make dry kief, which can later be formed into hash slabs or balls for smoking purposes. Commercial rosin presses can be used to apply heat and pressure onto raw marijuana matter and squeeze out its viscous and gooey insides without the need for closed-loop equipment, however the throughput is typically too low for commercial production.
With solventless methods, extraction companies still have to perform a solvent-based extraction process to produce the concentrated oil and may need to remove the undesirable plant matter from the mix.
Each type of extraction process produces a different type of cannabis oil with varying levels of purity. CO2 and ethanol are efficient solvents used to remove cannabinoids and terpenes from the plant, but can also unintentionally bring in plant waxes, lipids, and chlorophyll during the process, which requires additional post-processing time and cost to remove.
With hydrocarbon closed-loop equipment using butane and propane, however, the cannabis oil produced doesn’t have nearly as much wax, fat, or chlorophyll compared to CO2 or ethanol extraction, but has even more total cannabinoids and terpenes.
How Does BHO Extraction Produce Crude Oil?
Butane and propane’s non-polar characteristics and lower boiling points make it the ideal solvents to pull out a wider range of compounds including those temperature-sensitive terpene compounds that can evaporate in high heat. Compounds such as terpenes and flavonoids have high therapeutic value but are often degraded in the process.
Decarboxylation, or the process of applying heat to the compounds to activate them, can occur naturally or during oven drying processes. Light terpene oils can easily boil away if manufacturers aren’t careful. Using blended hydrocarbon solvents can produce a more complex terpene profile with a light color.
Butane hash oil (BHO) extraction, or hydrocarbon extraction, can produce a broad-spectrum or full-spectrum product rich in cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. For medicinal users, consuming a strain’s entire original compounds can amplify the health benefits due to the compound’s entourage effect that occurs within the body.
Getting full-spectrum concentrates from the extracted oil can be easy or nearly impossible depending on the solvent used. Butane is able to dissolve more of the desirable compounds and leave behind the chlorophyll and harsh compounds.
While BHO extraction can produce this full-spectrum product for a more complex and beneficial experience, it can just as well be created into a distillate oil free from terpenes and flavonoids for vape cartridges, edibles, and topicals.
Post-Processing and Refining
After the marijuana “crude” oil has been removed from the hemp or cannabis plant material, the solvent and undesirable chlorophyll, fat, and waxes are removed using a number of filtration methods, especially in the case of CO2 and ethanol-extracted crude oil. Post-process distillation and filtration can help purify the oil even further.
For instance, in the case of vape pen cartridges, concentrate manufacturers can completely distill the oil to filter out the flavonoids and plant pigments producing a clear and inhalable extract.
For edibles, however, complete distillation may not be necessary. Some plant pigments and flavonoids may be present in edibles without ruining the product’s integrity. Less refining means manufacturers can save time and money processing the extract.
Post-processing techniques have gotten so advanced and precise that they can filter out any contaminants squeezed out of the crude oil due to plant or residual contamination. For instance, some industrial crude oil can be contaminated but refined later on. Advanced filtration techniques can remove contaminants like fungicides and residual solvents.
Cannabis and hemp extraction methods that use CO2 may require winterization, which involves dissolving the extract in ethanol to separate the fats, waxes, and flavonoids. Sub-zero temperatures help coagulate and solidify the fats on the top player for further filtration using various screens or funnels.
When winterization is complete, the residual ethanol must be removed from the extract. Many manufacturers use a rotary evaporator to heat the mixture under vacuum from a vacuum pump. The ethanol used during winterization evaporates and is contained in a condenser. The result? Extract without ethanol.
Some manufacturers may use equipment with in-line, de-waxing columns to bypass or reduce the need for winterization. In-line de-waxing utilized sub-zero temperatures, like winterization, but only requires a single solvent, unlike winterization that requires an initial solvent and ethanol for the winterization process.
In-line de-waxing systems use surface area created by baffles, beads, or other media to capture undesirable compounds while allowing the extract solution to pass through. Ethanol is typically avoided to reduce the risk of degrading terpenes, which results in a less flavorful extract and can increase manufacturing production costs in some cases.
Hydrocarbon Extraction for a Better Crude
With hydrocarbon extraction, manufacturers can forgo the need for a cumbersome winterization freezer needed for the refinement. You won’t need a costly rotary evaporator or fractional distillation apparatus, either. All you’ll need is a compatible vacuum oven to remove the residual solvent and the trace amount of chlorophyll, waxes, and fats.
Hydrocarbon extraction’s versatility makes it a great solvent and production method for nearly any manufacturer. Hydrocarbon extractors can distill large volumes of trim or low-quality buds to take out as many cannabinoids as possible. We know it won’t be as aromatic as oil from buds, but manufacturers can still use every part of the plant with hydrocarbon extraction.
Further Processing: Distillation
For those looking to go beyond the high-purity extract that comes from hydrocarbon extraction, BHO oil can be further refined into a distillate. Distillation can produce a range of CBD and THC cannabinoids with over 95 percent purity. Distillation can also produce other minor cannabinoids such as THCV and Delta-8. Distillation allows manufacturers to use specific temperatures to boil away some compounds while leaving the desired ones like CBD for CBD oil alone.
Distillation allows manufacturers to produce predictable and consistent products that taste, smell, and feel the same every time. Hydrocarbon’s cannabis oil can be further crafted into cannabinoid isolates of THC, THCA, CBD, CBDA, and more psychoactive compounds.
CO2 and ethanol extraction are fine for making distillates such as vape oils and THC or CBD isolates but can end up costing manufacturers more than other refining methods. Hydrocarbon extractions can produce the following premium concentrates without the high expenses of other methods:
Automated Hydrocarbon Extraction
Luna Technologies’ IO Extractor is the leading provider for automated hydrocarbon extraction equipment in the cannabis and hemp industry. Our automated extraction solution ensures manufacturers keep pumping out gobs of light-colored and translucent oil for a wide range of cannabis and hemp products.
On-site commissioning and equipment training can help manufacturers get up-and-running as fast as possible. Hydrocarbon extraction with the IO Extractor takes full advantage of the power of butane and propane to process up to 18 pounds of dried biomass or 25 pounds of frozen biomass per hour to produce premium THC and CBD products. High quality cannabis and hemp extracts have never been easier to make at a large scale.
Cut Labor Costs
Automated controls eliminate weeks or months of apprenticeship training required for manually controlled hydrocarbon systems.
Eliminate Operator Error
Pre-programmed recipe-monitoring system checks pressures and temperatures hundreds of times per second to remove risk of operator error.
Process 18 pounds of dried plant material or 25 pounds of fresh-frozen material per run. Single operator can process 400 pounds of biomass in a single day.
Improve Run Time
50-minute average run time with a 10-minute soak. Run-to-run changeover times of two minutes.
The Difference Between Full Spectrum Crude Oil and Distillates
Consumers who are interested in adding cannabidiol (CBD) to their regimen have a number of options when it comes to the available products currently on the market — and, CBD distillates and full spectrum crude oils are some of them.
At Medical Mike’s, we focus on full spectrum CBD oils that feature all of the beneficial compounds of the hemp plant without leaving any behind. While there are CBD isolate products available, we believe that CBD working in conjunction with other cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids in the hemp plant can produce a more enhanced and therapeutic effect in those who consume it. In this article, briefly observe the difference between full-spectrum crude oil and distillates.
What Are Distillate Oils?
Sometimes referred to as broad-spectrum hemp oil, distillates begin as a full-spectrum oil, but are then further refined to remove certain cannabinoids, like tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). They generally contain as much as 80% CBD, with the remainder comprised of other minor cannabinoids, terpenes, and other plant oils. Distillates can be refined even further to create CBD isolates, which are purified CBD crystals that are made up of nearly all CBD.
There are a few different methods to extract CBD and other compounds of the hemp plant. Distillate oils are run through a more intensive and lengthy extraction process in order to break it down into broad-spectrum or CBD isolates, which essentially leaves behind a product that contains a higher CBD level. But since CBD distillates still contain other cannabinoids, they are sometimes considered full-spectrum products and can contain significant levels of other cannabinoids.
There are pros and cons of distillates, including the following:
- More potent form of isolated CBD.
- Versatile (may be used on their own or added to edibles or topicals).
- Contain very few terpenes that work synergistically together to create the entourage effect.
- Typically contain a lower content of cannabinoids and other bioactive chemicals.
What Are Full-Spectrum Crude Oils?
Crude CBD oil is also known as full-extract or full-spectrum CBD oil and is considered true hemp oil with all its compounds.
“Full-spectrum” CBD means that all cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids— including CBD and other bioactive compounds — are extracted from the hemp plant instead of just the CBD alone. Studies suggest that when all cannabinoids are ingested together, they work in harmony to provide an even greater effect in the body. This phenomenon is what scientists refer to as the ” entourage effect .”
More specifically, the entourage effect is based on the notion that each individual cannabinoid can create a more powerful effect when they work together compared to what they are able to do on their own. For this reason, many consumers may prefer consuming full-spectrum oils over isolates.
Like distillates, full-spectrum CBD oil has its perks and drawbacks, including the following.
- Offers the full benefits of all compounds in the hemp plant.
- Less processed than CBD isolates.
- May have a strong flavor.
- May contain higher levels of THC, which is less than 0.3% by law.
There are over 100 known cannabinoids, of which CBD and THC are the most abundant and well-known. But there are plenty others that are worth noting because of their potential therapeutic effects and role in the entourage effect in the body. There are also many terpenes in the hemp plant as well, which also deserve their credit for the medicinal properties they may have.
Other cannabinoids that would be present in full-spectrum CBD oils include cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), which we will get into more detail below:
Organic CBG oil – A cannabinoid not typically abundant in hemp and usually comprises less than 1% levels in most plants. However, when it works synergistically with other cannabinoids in full-spectrum hemp oils, it can offer a number of health benefits, including alleviating pain, inflammation , nausea, and potentially reducing eye pressure caused by glaucoma .
CBC – Sharing the same origins as THC and CBD from cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), CBC is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that may be associated with neurogenesis , alleviation of pain and inflammation , and calming of skin issues . CBC may even have antidepressant properties .
While there’s certainly the argument that CBD isolates and distillates can be beneficial because of the high concentrations of CBD contained within them, there’s also the potential for more heightened effects with full-spectrum crude CBD oils.
By allowing all beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes to work together, the effects may be more pronounced and powerful compared to the consumption of CBD alone. We invite you to try any one of our high-quality CBD oils to experience the therapeutic potential of full spectrum extracts.
What Is Hemp Crude Oil and What Is It Used For?
When it comes to creating products intended for consumption or topical use, most companies will use filtration during the process. After all, they want to make sure that they only expose customers to beneficial compounds and ingredients. But in some cases, doing without filtration can offer unique benefits.
Extracting CBD from hemp is one such instance. You can find out how by answering the question “What is hemp crude oil and what is it used for?”
What Is Hemp Crude Oil?
When people extract CBD from hemp, they usually don’t set it aside for immediate consumption. It usually goes through a filtration process which removes the plant matter from the oil. Hemp crude oil is oil that has been extracted from hemp but hasn’t gone through this additional refinement process.
Ingredients in Hemp Crude Oil
As mentioned, hemp crude oil still contains all the plant matter that is normally filtered out. This includes plant lipids and chlorophyll, which gives the oil a grassy taste when consumed. Along with the plant matter, crude oil contains the full range of cannabinoids from the hemp strain you are extracting, as well as a host of minerals, such as:
Benefits of Hemp Crude Oil
Highest Number of Cannabinoids
When you don’t put an extract through additional filtration, the extract retains all the cannabinoids available in that hemp strain. This typically gives you the highest amount of benefits resulting from the cannabinoids working together.
We refer to the latter idea as the entourage effect. When multiple cannabinoids are present together, they work synergistically, and their effects are enhanced. Since hemp crude oil has the most cannabinoids, it can offer the entourage effect.
Simpler Extraction Process
Filtration is a large step in extraction, and it takes time, energy, and equipment. While this process may change depending on the desired end product, it usually includes processes such as winterization. Because hemp crude oil doesn’t require the same degree of filtration, this expedites the entire process.
Drawbacks of Hemp Crude Oil
The presence of plant matter in CBD doesn’t render it ineffective or poisonous. However, it will certainly alter the taste. Typically, CBD with chlorophyll and similar substances tastes grassy, which many users find unpleasant. This often makes it less ideal for oral or sublingual consumption, though you can still take it by mouth.
Differences Between Hemp Crude Oil and Full-Spectrum Distillate
At first glance, many users confuse hemp crude oil with full-spectrum tinctures available on the market. While both products provide a wide range of cannabinoids, you can mark some key differences. The most significant is filtration. Typical full-spectrum tinctures are distillates that have gone through filtration to remove all plant matter, while crude hasn’t. This gives the products a few distinctions, such as:
Texture and Color
Most users will compare full-spectrum distillate to honey. It has a warm, semi-translucent brown color and a similar sticky, free-flowing consistency. When extracted using ethanol extraction methods, crude oil is much darker brown—almost black. It also has a thick, tar-like consistency.
As mentioned, hemp crude oil tends to have a rougher, grassier taste because of the presence of plant matter in the product. Since distillate has filtered out the plant matter, it tends to have a milder taste than its crude oil counterpart. This makes it more appealing for oral consumption or use in flavored CBD tinctures.
How Is Hemp Crude Oil Used?
Even though hemp crude oil has such a distinct taste, you can take it orally the same way you would take a distillate tincture. Most users who consume it this way choose to mask the flavor by using the oil in food or drink. Baked goods, dressings, sauces, and dips tend to make good choices for this method, since sauteing cannabinoids at high temperatures tends to degrade them.
The other option is to avoid taste altogether and use hemp crude oil as part of a topical product. This helps avoid the potentially degrading effects of cooking to help your body receive the full impact of the product. Additionally, the plant matter, fats, and many of the minerals contained in the crude oil offer a number of benefits for the skin, such as helping in skin cell regeneration.
Of course, in most instances, people extract hemp crude oil for the purpose of filtering it to turn it into other CBD related products, such as:
- Full-spectrum tinctures
- Broad-spectrum tinctures
- Vape cartridges
- Edibles and gummies
You must put oil through a winterization process to filter it. This involves combining the crude oil with ethanol and agitating it. From here, you put it into a deep freeze, anywhere from -112 degrees to -4 degrees Fahrenheit. The extract remains in the freezer for 24 hours. After that, you put it through a filter, which removes the waxes from the oils and ethanol.
Afterward, the hemp goes through other filters to remove other plant matter, like chlorophyll. Our hemp oil processing equipment includes a four-stage filtration skid that includes a bag, cellulose, active carbon, and cartridge filters. Depending on your purposes for the extract, you can elect to use one or all of these filters to achieve the desired result.
Along with this, you must filter the ethanol you used for the extraction and filtration out of the extract. This involves a process known as short-path distillation. During this, operators place extract in a vacuum chamber where the solution gets separated from the ethanol. You can recycle it for reuse.
Every CBD manufacturer is different. But whether your business specializes in edibles or vape cartridges, chances are, you will run into hemp crude oil. So, having an understanding of what hemp crude oil is and what it does is useful for exploring your current processes and looking into future product options. And whatever products you envision, Cedarstone Industry is here to help bring them to life. Reach out to us today to learn more.