CBD Gummies And Alcohol

CBDISTILLERY

Buy CBD Oil Online

CBD and alcohol may amplify each other's effects, and mixing them together might produce unwanted consequences that you should know. Should you mix CBD oil in alcohol? Alcohol dissolves cannabinoids, but the two are definitely not a dream duo. On the other hand, studies point to CBD as the potential aid for people suffering from hangovers, withdrawals, and alcohol-induced toxicity. How relaxed is too relaxed?

Everything That Happens When You Mix CBD and Alcohol

CBD and alcohol have tumultuous – yet similar – histories. Each faced government resistance and came out on top. But while their backgrounds share some common ground, CBD and alcohol’s effects on the body and central nervous system differ in some areas and are eerily similar in others.

So is CBD helpful or harmful when mixed with alcohol? The jury is still out, but that doesn’t mean it’s safe to mix CBD oil and alcohol. Before you make any rash choices, consider what happens when you mix CBD with alcohol.

This article will review what studies say, our findings, and years of knowledge surrounding CBD and how CBD and alcohol interact with each other when mixed and more.

What is CBD?

CBD stands for “cannabidiol,” a major chemical compound (cannabinoid) found in the Cannabis sativa L. plant species (a.k.a. “hemp” or “marijuana”).

Historically, cannabis is best known for its THC-induced effects, specifically the euphoric high. But this is where CBD and THC go their separate ways. While THC is intoxicating, CBD isn’t.

CBD is also federally legal, unlike “marijuana,” cannabis containing over 0.3% THC. The extract comes in a variety of forms, like CBD oil, edibles, and vapes.

One important (and possibly harmful) similarity is that alcohol and CBD oil both use the CYP450 liver enzyme. This forced combination of alcohol and CBD trigger a negative interaction, as is the case with many prescription medications .

What Happens When You Mix CBD and Alcohol?

We have very little research on CBD oil and alcohol. The information available either relies on small human sample sizes or rodents. These give us a vague idea about the effects of alcohol and CBD.

Studies show CBD’s interaction with alcohol is strangely contradictory. Rather than being completely good or bad, the effects of alcohol and CBD lie somewhere in between.

1. CBD Could Increase Intoxication

CBD and alcohol are both nervous system depressants, meaning they mentally relax you. Combining alcohol with CBD might increase alcohol-induced fatigue and drowsiness, making you feel tired and sluggish.

A 1979 clinical trial published in Psychopharmacology suggests that mixing CBD and alcohol causes severely impaired motor function and distorted time perception. Subjects who only took CBD didn’t report those effects.

The effects of alcohol on mood are almost comedically well-known. We also have strong reasons to believe CBD, like alcohol, decreases anxiety. Consequently, it helps further reduce inhibitions – which can be good or bad, depending on how you react.

If you want to dial up your drinking experience, CBD might help get you drunker faster.

2. CBD May Help With Alcohol-Related Nausea

Paradoxically, CBD appears to enhance alcohol’s “good” effects while fighting the negative ones. Nausea and vomiting are classic signs you’ve had too much alcohol, with your body trying to purge the excess.

But if you’re worried about throwing up, CBD might help prevent or relieve nausea. For instance, a 2001 study in the British Journal of Pharmacology observed antiemetic effects in rodents receiving CBD.

But while this helps curb the unpleasant experience, repressing alcohol-induced nausea with CBD (or any method) isn’t a good idea. Vomiting is a sign of toxicity. Your body tries to eliminate the poison (in this case alcohol) from your stomach to prevent further harm.

Like it or not, purging excess alcohol is necessary for your health and safety. Repressing the function will make it harder to flush your system and could cause alcohol poisoning .

3. There’s a Chance CBD Can Lower Blood Alcohol Levels

Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) determines how intoxicated you feel, although the intensity varies based on tolerance. As blood alcohol levels spike, so does the risk of poisoning.

Ironically, mixing alcohol and CBD, in this case, might help.

The above study from 1979 gave 10 human participants 200 mg of CBD, along with alcohol. Researchers noted that CBD reduced blood alcohol levels, while nothing changed with placebo.

However, the study is old and very small. Although promising, this is far from conclusive and we should take it with a grain of salt.

4. Alcohol and CBD Reduce Blood Pressure

We often hear how high blood pressure is bad, but low blood pressure is just as harmful.

Cannabis and alcohol are both vasodilators. In other words, they relax and open blood vessels, which is why medical marijuana became a popular remedy for glaucoma.

Alcohol isn’t health food or an anti-blood pressure drug. Low BP forces your heart to work harder. Eventually, the strain could be too much, causing you to pass out – although death is possible in rare cases.

5. CBD Might Protect Against Alcohol Damage

If this is true, the implications can be huge. There’s a good amount of animal research dedicated to the protective effects of CBD.

For example, one 2013 rodent study in the journal Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior looked at rat subjects with alcohol-related neurological damage. It revealed a mind-blowing 49% less brain cell loss when the rats received CBD.

Excessive long-term alcohol consumption can destroy your liver. But a 2014 study from Free Radical Biology and Medicine reveals that CBD could protect the liver from alcohol-induced damage. CBD promoted the regeneration of new liver cells and fought oxidative stress – an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants that’s known to harm cells

6. CBD Could Reduce the Urge to Drink

We all know the classic cycle after a night of heavy drinking. You go out planning to drink in moderation, but somewhere things get out of hand and you lose count. The next morning all you can say is “I’ll never drink again.” But most people know it’s a short-lived promise.

CBD, however, might help the same thing from repeating itself next Friday. A 2019 review in Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology examined preclinical data and human studies. The authors concluded that CBD may reduce the urge to binge drink.

Again, this isn’t conclusive evidence, but it makes a strong case for further research into the effects of CBD with alcohol.

Does CBD Oil Help With Hangovers?

“Hangover” is the single-word refutation to anyone who loves getting incredibly drunk. Even seasoned drinkers know of this inevitable outcome. Hangovers are nasty and can last a while, with common symptoms being fatigue, dry mouth, nausea, and headache.

If you slipped up and had a few too many shots, it might be handy to have some CBD oil on hand. Earlier we mentioned how CBD’s antiemetic benefits can keep you from getting sick while drinking.

Whether you’re nauseous the night before or queasy the morning after, CBD can reduce or relieve the symptom and make your hangover more manageable.

See also  Elite Power CBD Gummies

There’s also ample evidence to suggest CBD could help with headaches, as indicated in a 2011 review published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research .

Keep in mind that hangover headaches are a consequence of dehydration , caused by your liver and kidneys working overtime to eliminate the poison. Keep yourself hydrated with water or sports drinks and let the hangover pass…

Can You Mix CBD and Alcohol?

The question of whether or not you can mix the two is still debated. Medical researchers don’t have enough evidence to pinpoint the exact consequences of mixing CBD and alcohol. Evidence is preliminary, human studies are small, and animal research is sparse.

What we do know paints a contradictory picture, with pros and cons forming an uncanny balance. But for the sake of argument, let’s assume the potential effects we covered are true.

CBD can increase intoxication but also prevent the negative consequences of excessive drinking. Cannabidiol reduces blood alcohol levels and protects the liver, but combining the substances can also lead to a dangerous drop in blood pressure.

CBD can keep you from getting sick, yet risk triggering alcohol poisoning in the process. Of course, you may not even feel the need to drink much if you take CBD.

So can you mix CBD and alcohol? Yes, you can mix CBD and alcohol – the real question is should you do it? That’s a matter of opinion and how willing you are to take the risk.

How Long After Drinking Alcohol Can You Take CBD Oil?

There hasn’t been any research about how long you should wait after drinking if you use CBD oil. The effects of ingestible CBD last four to eight hours. Both CBD oil and alcohol stay in your system long after that time has passed – often days or weeks.

However, the key here is to avoid the effects of CBD oil colliding with alcohol in the liver. Theoretically, if you no longer feel the effects of alcohol, you probably won’t have an issue taking CBD oil.

Give yourself at least eight hours to get well past the intoxication stage.

Can CBD Help With Alcohol Addiction?

CBD’s ability to help reduce addictive behaviors has generated a lot of hope for addicts and doctors alike. Studies are limited (like virtually everything CBD-related), but they at least involve some human testing.

For example, a small 2013 randomized controlled trial published in the Journal of Addictive Behaviors showed CBD reduced cigarette consumption in smokers by 40%.

It’s great that smokers might benefit from CBD, but what about alcohol? Apparently, a 2018 study in Neuropsychopharmacology on alcoholic rats showed that CBD reduced the subjects’ desire to seek alcohol and other drugs.

Even more impressively, the rats showed no alcohol or drug-seeking behavior for five months after stopping CBD treatment. However, it’s unknown whether this approach will work on humans.

With the positive results from studies of using CBD to help alcoholism, it’s important to be aware of the effects and symptoms caused by consuming too much alcohol and why you should consider using CBD.

Here are examples of the effects and symptoms caused by alcoholism.

Final Thoughts on CBD and Alcohol

Mixing CBD with alcohol might compound their effects, triggering grogginess, sedation, and possibly fainting. At the same time, preliminary (mostly animal) research indicates CBD could protect from alcohol-induced health issues, like liver damage, alcoholism, and withdrawal.

Whether you use CBD oil, CBD gummies, or anything else, try to keep CBD and alcohol far apart.

There’s no need to take unnecessary risks. Until we have more information on interactions between CBD oil and alcohol, it’s better to be safe than sorry.

CBD and Alcohol: What Happens When You Mix Them Together?

Taking them together may reduce the health benefits offered by CBD. While CBD is a known antioxidant and neuroprotectant, this isn’t the case for alcohol.

As a matter of fact, alcohol is a toxin with no acknowledged safe dose, as reported by the largest global study conducted in 195 countries.

Since CBD oil is available virtually everywhere, people are wondering if they can boost its relaxing properties by mixing it with other substances like alcohol for recreational use.

After all, you can have CBD-infused gummies, honey sticks, protein bars, etc. — so why not add some CBD to a good ole’ booze?

Alcohol companies have jumped on the bandwagon, infusing different alcoholic beverages with CBD, such as beer or cocktails — but does it actually make sense?

What happens when you mix CBD with alcohol?

Can you use CBD oil to help with alcohol misuse, hangovers, and other related problems?

Continue reading to find out.

CBD vs Alcohol: How They Affect Your Health

CBD and alcohol are completely different in terms of how they affect human health. Here’s a quick comparison of both substances.

CBD

CBD, or cannabidiol, is a natural compound found in cannabis. Along with THC and other active molecules, it belongs to a group of substances known as cannabinoids.

CBD has a different chemical structure than THC, the intoxicating ingredient in marijuana plants. You won’t get high off of CBD, but you can still reap a plethora of health benefits from using it.

The most common effects of CBD include relief from stress, anxiety, pain and inflammation, and sleep deprivation. It can also strengthen the immune system and help the body regulate communication between neurotransmitters.

The CBD products that are widely advertised online come from hemp plants. Hemp is known for higher concentrations of CBD and only trace amounts of THC. Hemp-derived products comply with federal law and can be legally purchased in all 50 states.

CBD can also be extracted from marijuana. Such products will contain higher levels of THC and are legal only in the states that have legalized marijuana for recreational or medical use.

There have been no reports of fatal overdoses from CBD. The cannabinoid has been tested in very high dosages – up to 1,500 mg daily – without life-threatening side effects.

The effects of alcohol are on the other side of the spectrum.

Alcohol

Also known as ethanol, alcohol is the main intoxicant in alcoholic beverages; in other words, it’s what makes you feel drunk.

Alcohol forms as a result of the interaction between sugar and yeast in certain carbohydrate-rich foods, such as grains, potatoes, or grapes.

It is also the most abused substance in the world. It can considerably alter your state of mind, compromising motor skills, judgment, and decision-making.

People often act without limits when under the influence of alcohol. It fuels them with courage, reduces shyness, and has a depressant effect on your nervous system.

The short-term side effects of alcohol include drowsiness, slurred speech, blurred vision, impaired judgment, problems with hearing, weak coordination, and blackouts.

The long-term risks of binge drinking are much more severe. Regular alcohol poisoning may lead to addiction, cause malnutrition, nerve damage, liver disease, and permanent brain damage. These are just a few consequences of alcohol misuse (1).

See also  CBD Oil For Sleep

Does CBD and Alcohol Mix?

When people discuss the validity of mixing CBD with alcohol, they raise one specific argument — that CBD is alcohol-soluble. Ethanol extraction is actually one of the most common ways of making herbal supplements.

However, the alcohol usually evaporates once the active compounds have been stripped from the plant material — leaving the producer with a thick liquid that contains cannabinoids, terpenes, and other hemp molecules.

You generally don’t mix CBD and alcohol together. There’s a good reason why people advise against doing so.

CBD improves the functioning of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS is the major regulatory network within our bodies that helps the body maintain the balance between important biological processes — such as pain perception, mood, memory, reproduction, immune function, neuroprotection, body temperature, appetite, and more.

The ECS produces its own CBD-like compounds called endocannabinoids. An ECS that is deficient in endocannabinoids is likely to lead to further imbalances between the other systems and their organs — something that CBD supplementation is supposed to prevent.

CBD ‘encourages’ the ECS to produce more of its endocannabinoids while slowing their breakdown. Since more cannabinoids are circulating in your bloodstream, the body can efficiently return to homeostasis.

Alcohol ruins the effort you put into leveling the endocannabinoid deficiencies.

Why Mixing CBD and Alcohol Isn’t A Good Idea

Alcohol has a potent sedative effect on the user. People often drink it to promote feelings of relaxation and to reduce stress and tension.

However, the potential short-term benefits are outnumbered by a long list of dangerous side effects. Alcohol misuse may wreak havoc on your physical and mental health. It can cause severe damage to your organs in addition to the social harm caused by those who become addicted to alcohol.

Mixing CBD with alcohol diminishes its health benefits because it causes damage to the ECS. As a result, endocannabinoid deficiencies may deteriorate.

There are some studies that suggest taking a small dose of alcohol with a large dose of CBD to induce stronger sedation and reduce anxiety.

One study was conducted on 75 people to analyze the efficacy of CBD in reducing anxiety and improving sleep patterns. After 30 days, the participants had lower anxiety markers and experienced deeper sleep (2).

The research team has found that adding 1 gram of alcohol for every 2.2 pounds of total body weight to a single dose of 200 mg of CBD resulted in significant improvements in motor performance and alterations in time perception. The subjects didn’t report these effects when they took CBD alone.

However, this isn’t the best study to conclude from because it was conducted on a small sample and used a much larger dose of CBD than most people take in their routine.

There aren’t many studies on the effects of mixing CBD with alcohol, but considering their contrasting effects on our health, they shouldn’t be taken together.

Does CBD Help with Hangovers?

Judging by the benefits of CBD, many people believe that you can use CBD oil to help with at least several negative effects of alcohol misuse.

Although CBD oil doesn’t help with acute intoxication or impaired motor skills, it may help lessen the symptoms associated with hangovers, such as headaches, fatigue, upset stomach, and increased blood pressure.

CBD has strong antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, which makes it a decent option for nursing hangovers and reducing the damage caused by alcohol.

If you want to enjoy the relaxing effects of CBD, but without getting buzzed, you can mix it into virgin versions of your cocktail recipes.

CBD Oil & Alcohol Withdrawals

Is it possible that CBD helps with alcohol withdrawals in a similar way that can mitigate hangovers?

Unfortunately, there’s not much research into it, but CBD may be able to reduce the chances of alcohol withdrawal by supporting homeostasis and easing some other symptoms.

In a 2014 study published in the journal Free Radical Biology and Medicine, the authors concluded that CBD can reduce alcohol-induced liver toxicity in mice. The study found that CBD prevented steatosis (fatty liver disease) caused by alcohol abuse (3).

A 2016 review of studies posted in the journal Neurotoxicity Research found little evidence to support the positive effects of CBD on alcohol withdrawals, but it did mention the role of CB2 receptors in treating alcohol addiction (4).

Dr. Melanie Bone, a medical cannabis practitioner working in Florida states that CBD may reduce the damage caused by problematic drinking. By strengthening the body’s defensive mechanisms and reducing alcohol cravings, CBD oil may help minimize the harms of alcohol abuse.

These are very promising findings. With more clinical research analyzing the effects of CBD on damage caused by binge drinking, therapists may use it as an adjunctive treatment for those trying to recover from addiction.

CBD Before vs After Drinking Alcohol

Like we said, taking CBD after drinking alcohol may help you ease the pesky symptoms of hangovers, protect your body against alcohol-induced damage, and support post-drinking recuperation.

On the other hand, taking CBD before drinking may contribute to lower blood alcohol levels. The blood alcohol levels are referred to the amount of alcohol in your blood after drinking. The higher these levels, the greater the impairment in cognitive function and motor performance.

Although the evidence that CBD affects blood alcohol levels, one study conducted on 10 people found that a dose of 200 mg of CBD significantly reduced the amount of alcohol in their blood. However, it’s not clear whether lower amounts of CBD would yield the same result.

Long story short, studies show conflicting results, reporting no significant influence of CBD on blood alcohol levels.

CBD for Recovering Alcoholics

Considering the health benefits of CBD, some people decide to support their recovery from alcoholism with CBD oil.

But is CBD safe for recovering alcoholics?

According to the World Health Organization, CBD is a safe compound, with no severe side effects. Its abuse potential is comparable to placebo, and people tolerate it even in doses as large as 1500 mg daily without any negative reactions.

Several studies have found that high doses of CBD oil can cause a few mild side effects, such as:

  • Dry mouth
  • Drowsiness
  • Fatigue
  • Appetite fluctuation
  • Diarrhea

CBD can also change the way certain medications are processed by the liver. CBD is the inhibitor of the system of enzymes (CYP450) that metabolize drugs. When you take CBD along with your medication, it may cause a negative interaction, resulting in subtherapeutic effects or toxic concentrations of the drug in the bloodstream. If your medication has a grapefruit warning, you shouldn’t take it with CBD oil.

We recommend consulting a holistic doctor to establish the right routine for both the CBD and your meds.

Does CBD Protect Cells Against Alcohol-related Damage?

Binge drinking can cause severe damage to cells, increasing the likelihood of inflammation and chronic diseases, such as pancreatitis, hypertension, and certain types of cancer.

See also  Pure CBD Oil Gummies Las Vegas

CBD has neuroprotective properties, which means it could reduce damage caused by alcohol abuse.

In one study on rats, a CBD cream lowered the brain-cell damage caused by heavy drinking by up to 49% (5).

Another study found that CBD administration to mice resulted in better protection against alcohol-induced fatty liver disease by triggering autophagy, a process that supports cell regeneration (6).

One study has found a correlation between the use of CBD-rich cannabis extract with an increased risk of liver toxicity in mice. However, the mice were force-fed with ridiculously large amounts of CBD, and the study’s results weren’t replicated in humans.

Final Thoughts on CBD and Alcohol

Research suggests that small doses of alcohol may intensify the effects of large doses of CBD — resulting in sleepiness and greater relaxation.

However, taking CBD alongside alcohol is counterintuitive because alcohol indirectly damages the endocannabinoid system — something that CBD is supposed to prevent.

In animal studies, CBD has shown the potential to protect cells against alcohol-induced damage, reduce blood alcohol levels, and control withdrawal symptoms from addiction.

Until more studies are done on this subject, it remains unclear whether mixing CBD and alcohol can be safe, even in small amounts.

References:

  1. Rehm, Jürgen. “The risks associated with alcohol use and alcoholism.” Alcohol research & health: the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism vol. 34,2 (2011): 135-43.
  2. Shannon, Scott et al. “Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series.” The Permanente journal vol. 23 (2019): 18-041. doi:10.7812/TPP/18-041
  3. Yang, Lili et al. “Cannabidiol protects the liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy.” Free radical biology & medicine vol. 68 (2014): 260-7. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.12.026
  4. Kleczkowska, Patrycja et al. “Cannabinoid Ligands and Alcohol Addiction: A Promising Therapeutic Tool or a Humbug?.” Neurotoxicity research vol. 29,1 (2016): 173-96. doi:10.1007/s12640-015-9555-7
  5. Liput, Daniel J et al. “Transdermal delivery of cannabidiol attenuates binge alcohol-induced neurodegeneration in a rodent model of an alcohol use disorder.” Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior vol. 111 (2013): 120-7. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2013.08.013
  6. Wang, Yuping et al. “Cannabidiol attenuate alcohol-induced liver steatosis, metabolic dysregulation, inflammation, and neutrophil-mediated injury.” Scientific Reports vol. 7,1 12064. 21 Sep. 2017, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10924-8
Livvy Ashton

Livvy is a registered nurse (RN) and board-certified nurse midwife (CNM) in the state of New Jersey. After giving birth to her newborn daughter, Livvy stepped down from her full-time position at the Children’s Hospital of New Jersey. This gave her the opportunity to spend more time writing articles on all topics related to pregnancy and prenatal care.

This Is What Happens When You Mix Alcohol and CBD

With CBD rising in popularity, it seems people are mixing it with everything, alcohol included. Los Angeles’ bar scene is spilling over with CBD cocktail offerings, and breweries are selling CBD-infused beer. But is mixing CBD and alcohol actually a good idea?

For those who don’t know, cannabidiol [CBD] is a compound in weed with relaxant effects, but it’s not psychoactive in the way that THC is, so it won’t get you high. It’s sold as oil, in edibles, capsules, vape juice, and, apparently, alcohol.

Even if you’re not slapping the two together in a drink, CBD and alcohol can interact if you take them within four to eight hours of each other, says James Giordano, professor of neurology and biochemistry at Georgetown University Medical Center. This means that if you have a drink with dinner then take CBD dab before bed, the CBD could have a stronger effect than it would without the alcohol.

Since alcohol and CBD both relax you and lower your inhibitions, these effects could be especially strong and long-lasting when you mix the two substances. “On CBD, you’re very chill, very lighthearted, mellow. The alcohol will make that more intense,” Giordano says. “For some people, it makes them very, very sedated.” For this reason, he doesn’t recommend the combination.

“Like anything else, as doses increase of either or both, you get yourself more into a problem,” he explains. “The more you drink, the more CBD you’re taking, you get a potentiated effect that’s greater than the effect of either alone. The level of intoxication is going to be greater: greater loss of control, inhibition, motor coordination, and that becomes problematic.”

The effect this combination will have on you depends on what kind of drunk you are, though. “If you’re a happy drunk, then CBD could make you a happier drunk,” Giordano says. “If you’re an angry or violent drunk, the CBD may certainly disinhibit some of that.”

But there could actually be benefits to taking CBD with alcohol, suggests Soyona Rafatja, a New York-based functional and integrative family medicine physician. One study in the journal Psychopharmacology found that people who had alcohol and a CBD capsule had lower blood alcohol levels than those who had alcohol alone, though they experienced the same impairments in cognition and motor coordination. Another study in Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior found that rodents experienced less alcohol-induced neurodegeneration if they received CBD through a topical gel while the alcohol was administered.

More research from Free Radical Biology & Medicine showed that rodents that ingested CBD 30 minutes before ingesting alcohol were less likely to experience alcohol-induced oxidative damage in the liver than those that didn’t have the CBD. While they’re just animal studies, experts think they’re quite telling. “Alcohol decreases autophagy [degradation of damaged cells] in the liver, causing fat to accumulate in the liver and therefore cause fatty liver, inflammation, and hepatitis,” Rafatjah explains. CBD does the opposite, spurring damaged cells to degenerate, which can counteract alcohol’s effects.

Jordan Tishler, president of the medical cannabis practice InhaleMD and the Association of Cannabis Specialists, on the other hand, says there isn’t enough research to prove any interaction between alcohol and CBD. He’s more concerned about people mixing alcohol with THC—this, he says, increases THC levels in the blood eightfold.

So, the jury’s still out on the effects of combining alcohol and CBD, and experts can’t even seem to agree. If you’re going to take CBD and alcohol together, Giordano recommends at least keeping the doses low and trying both on their own first so you know how you react to them. “People who don’t drink or do CBD regularly, if they drink and do CBD together, good luck—that’s really going to be unpredictable,” he says. “If there’s any prediction at all, that prediction is, that person’s going to be pretty stoned.”

Sign up for our newsletter to get the best of Tonic delivered to your inbox.

ORIGINAL REPORTING ON EVERYTHING THAT MATTERS IN YOUR INBOX.

By signing up, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy & to receive electronic communications from Vice Media Group, which may include marketing promotions, advertisements and sponsored content.

How useful was this post?

Click on a star to rate it!

Average rating 5 / 5. Vote count: 1

No votes so far! Be the first to rate this post.